Period of life:
Ural and Perm regions (Russia)
Estemmenosuchus is an omnivorous amphibian animal of the therapsid order. It got the name “crowned crocodile” because of the large head bumps. Estemmenosuchus had more than 3 metres body length, up to 2.5 metres height and 500 to 1500 kilograms weight. It existed during the Paleozoic era, moved both terrestrial and submerge into the water like a hippo. Scientists are still disputing its feed constituents. The theory states it consumed ferns, calamites, lyre, algae, reeds, and, possibly, carrion. Recovered canines also indicate the possibility of it being a predator. However, herbivorous therapsids also retained canines. A large body size points to complex digestive system adapted for herbivorous feed as the plants were much rougher than meat. Therefore the reptile could be likely omnivorous and the exact determination is yet to be completed.